Thursday, October 13, 2016

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Friday, August 19, 2016

Accidental Beauty

1.  Dinner
Sometimes the most beautiful effects in a garden are completely unplanned.  Here's tonight's supper I collected.  All the regular vegetable-collecting buckets were in use here and there so I grabbed an empty bowl-shaped planter to fetch in these tomatoes, broccoli and beets, together with a cucumber and a few errant green beans.


2. Volunteers
Here's another accidental beauty--a Jimson weed (Devil's trumpet) in my compost pile.  The seeds have been waiting in the compost pile for at least three years, because that's the last time I grew this plant around here.  Earlier this summer, I shifted the pile to get at some of the older compost at the bottom, which must have exposed the seeds.  Within a week of being exposed, the seeds came to life and the baby plants took off.  These are perhaps eight or ten weeks old, they really exploded in the compost.  This is three plants, only.


The blooms open in the afternoon, then die by mid-morning of the next day.  However, a new crop of blooms is waiting, as you see here, to open that afternoon. This photo was taken in the early afternoon when the dead flowers are still on the plant (you can see them drooping) and the new flowers have not yet opened for the afternoon. They look and act like giant morning glories, only they don't climb and their period of blooming in the day is different. The flowers have the same elegant trumpet shapes, although the Jimson weed's are far, far bigger.

3. Nature's flower arrangement
We deadheaded the hostas and the cardinal flowers today.  Several clematis vines were trimmed back last week (It had to be done because of some construction: this is not the usual time of year to prune clematis.)  Combine these with some immortal oak leaves from last winter, and you get a perfectly beautiful composition of colors and textures--prettier than any flower arrangement I've ever made on purpose.

nature's flower arrangement


PS: Not all the beauty is accidental. Here is an autumnal composition planted on purpose--Black eyed Susans with Perennial Dusty Miller.  A few cardinal flowers show in the background, together with the daisy-like flowers of a Ligualaria. This is a view from the top of the mound which surrounds the bog-garden: the Ligularia and  Cardinal flower are down in the bog, the Black eyed Susans and Dusty Miller are on the dry upland portion.

Fall in the air

Thursday, May 5, 2016

The subtitle says it all: here's why...

gardening hands--not fit for yarn
I got started earlier on the garden than usual, worked in the cold more, got the mulch down earlier (120 bags of cocoa hulls bought and applied, 100 bags of bark mulch of which 60 have been applied so far) deadheaded last year's leftovers (we leave the seedheads on for the winter birds).  The 21 photos below show the results.  Now you know why TK is not knitting.

Click on any photo to get into full-screen mode, then use the L and R arrows on your keyboard to navigate.  Click in the black space outside the photo to escape full-screen mode.

Virginia Bluebells
hens and chicks
fern pavement
Berginia and white-stripe grass
view towards the birdbath fountain
from foreground to background: cat mint, Russian sage, climbing roses, berry bushes.  Spring bulbs to the L
Knot garden
veggie/cutting garden to L, peony/clematis border to R
Newton the apple tree with spring bulbs, berry bushes behind
view through hydrangea garden
a view of the shade garden
another view of the shade garden
young smoke bushes
a view of the circle gardens
another view of the circle garden
yet another view of the circle garden (shade garden beyond gazebo to the L)
eating-apple espalier with lipstick strawberries border the sunken garden
cutting and veggie garden
crab apple espalier--veggie/cutting garden to R
forsythia bushes with candy tuft, tree arch in background to R
hostas near house patio

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Photos of the garden in recent seasons

Here are some photos of the garden in recent seasons.  I'll get some photos up soon from this season, too.

Saturday, July 19, 2014

A Wisconsin goldfish pond--tricks for pondkeeping

The goldfish pond around here used to get disgusting in mid-summer.  Several years of experiments have finally led to a method which works to keep the fish healthy and the pond not-disgusting.  Here's the rundown on goldfish-keeping which I wish I'd been able to find when we first set out to have a goldfish pond in our Wisconsin garden.

The "pond" is a 1700 gallon circular tank, made of some black plastic-type material--polyethylene, I think.  It is about the same size as the one at this link.  It was chosen to be too deep and too steep-sided for raccoons to get at the fish.  Raccoons do not jump in to catch fish, but rather, station themselves on the edge, or in very shallow water. In fact, our research indicated that shallower, or slope-sided pre-formed tanks sold to the unsuspecting as fish-ponds are known to landscape professionals as "raccoon dinner plates."

Another reason we chose a plastic tank is that, in Wisconsin, a concrete-sided pond would soon crack with our winter freeze-thaw cycle, while a metal tank might split its seams or rust if set into the ground.

Leveling the tank and setting it in the ground was quite a challenge.  The hole it needed was too narrow and too deep to dig with a bob-cat, so the hole was dug by two (quite wonderful!) garden helpers, A.H. and W.O., with shovels. Luckily, our soil is that deep with no rocks. (The weather is a caution, the mosquitoes enormous, but yes, gardening in the Midwest also comes with certain advantages!)

A.H and W.O. did a fantastic job of digging the tank in level.  After all these years of freeze-thaw cycles, there's still not even a quarter of an inch difference from side to side. Today, however, I believe I would call for a professional landscaper with a mini-excavator to dig a hole this big.

The tank is set about a foot above the ground level.  This leaves enough of the tank below ground-level so there is unfrozen water, no matter how cold it gets.  However, a thick layer of ice does form on top every year (I mean, this is Wisconsin...)

There is no gravel on the bottom--the tank is bare. This makes clean up much easier.

Around the protruding foot or so of the tank,  a few layers of limestone wall-stone, maybe 6 or so inches high has been dry-laid.  This matches exactly with the surrounding raised beds made of the same material. The rim of the tank is hung with limestone L-shaped veneer stone of the type mortared onto concrete-block chimneys and fences to make them look like they are made of field-stone. A local stone yard had these piled up (among the waist-high weeds and the wasp nests) in their returns/bargain area. The narrow end of the "L" is hooked over the rim, facing the water, the long end hangs nearly to the ground.  Arranged this way, the veneer covers the (quite narrow) edge of the plastic tank, and hangs just below the edge of the dry-laid limestone, so that the entire foot of black plastic sticking up above ground level is completely hidden with stone.

Our pond was originally stocked with 12 goldfish, bought from Wal-Mart for a few cents apiece. Not having any idea what we were doing, we bought fan-tails for pretty.  Later we read that fan-tails are not a good variety for outdoor ponds, because their tails are so fragile and hinder mobility.  Well, what can I say? Many of the fish have survived for years (this is their fourth summer) and they've grown and had babies, which are fan-tails too.  When we first saw the babies, we thought we were in for a population explosion but life outdoors is evidently hard: we now have 14 fish (although last summer, there were 16).

If we wanted to keep koi, I think we would have to be a lot more careful and particular, and that many of these tricks would not work. However, we are content with goldfish-keeping (and the fantails are truly beautiful fish!)

We installed the tank near an outdoor GFI outlet, as electrical filtration was our plan. Originally, we tried all kinds of filters, pressurized, in-pond, in ground, with built-in UV lights, with free-standing UV lights--you name it, we tried it, and boy was it expensive. We  also tried growing pond-plants as natural aerators.  Every combination of filter and light we tried, failed. The pond was scummy with algae, and the fish ate every part of every plant they could get at.  So, we gave up trying to filter the water, and gave up on plants, too.  Instead, we concentrated on aeration.

In our current system, air bubbles through the tank from a special "deep pond" aerator, which is hooked up, via a 12-line harness, to 12 airstones.  The airstones are scattered all over the pond bottom. The pond surface bubbles strongly when the aerator is on. Every year, I mean to buy weighted air-line, but I always forget.  In order that the air-line not float to the surface, the airstones and the harness are weighted with rocks.

The electrical outlet and the pump--which is not submersible-- are hidden under a "hollow rock" of the type designed to cover well-heads. The main trunk of the air-line is buried in the ground between the pump and pond-side.  At that point, the air-line emerges from the ground, goes over the edge and disappears into the depths.

We've tried many different kinds, and settled on Wardley's floating fish pellets. These seem to float long enough for the fish to eat them all, unlike flakes, which seem to start settling very quickly.

 To feed the fish, we turn off the aerator--the fish have learned this means food is to follow shortly, and they come to the surface as soon as the aerator is unplugged. After waiting for the water to become still, we feed the fish 2-4 times, 10 or so minutes apart, a table-spoon or two in each feeding, the number of feedings depending on whether the fish seem hungry for more. (Test=whether the fish rise to the surface and start "gobbling" when we come near.)  The 14 fish we have this year--the original survivors maybe 6" long and their various sized babies--cost several dollars a week in food.

After trying various combinations of UV lights, and even chemicals, we were at wits' end to control algae.  A visit to (the wonderful!!) Longwood Gardens gave us the solution.  The lily-pond patio featured a display of water plants with goldfish. The water was dyed a dark black with "pond colorant."  We adopted this approach for our fish pond--adding colorant to the water. The goldfish did not seem to mind.  We have since researched this issue and learned that goldfish are adapted to live in muddy water, which is also opaque.

On the downside, the initial expense was a bit high--$30.00.  On the upside, the jug we got, the only one at our local landscape supply, will probably last forever.  The stuff is highly concentrated, and packaged in quantities meant to color natural lakes. Another downside: we can no longer see the fish except when they come to the surface at feeding time. The water surface is utterly opaque. The best upside: no algae.  None.

Although we originally brought the fish into the house for the winter, the fish got too darn big--too big even to keep over the winter in a 70 gallon stock-tank.  With some trepidation, we started leaving them outside two winters ago, and they have now survived through two winters, including last year's never-ending polar-vortex event.

Once the weather gets very cold and the fish stop coming to the surface, we turn off the aerator and remove the airstone and line.  Before the surface freezes over, we drop in a gas diffuser, called a "pond breather."   This item does not keep a hole melted in the ice, rather, it draws water from below the freeze line and circulates it above the ice, then back down below the freeze line, allowing gas exchange to occur. It is designed to work with ice up to 15" thick.  Sometimes, the ice (with snow on top) gets thicker than that.  Then, the breather quits working for a while. However, even with our worst weather, this only lasts for a day or two.  As soon as the weather improves marginally, the breather starts up again.

In the spring, we wait until all the ice is gone, and the fish start coming to the surface. This is also when we start feeding the fish.  Two or so weeks later, when the fish are active all day long and eating regularly, all the fish are netted and put into a stock tank with an aquarium-sized aerator going--this is enough for the 1/2 day that the fish will be in the stock tank.  This is the only time of the year we get see the fish individually and close-up, to count them, to see who survived and how many new baby fish there are.

Once the fish are out, we pump the tank out using a submersible self-priming sump-pump designed to handle small solids. The water is pumped into a nearby bog garden.  With the water out, we clean the tank of all the leaves that fell in during the late fall and winter.  The fish-muck at the bottom we carefully dole out among the plants in the surrounding perennial gardens. Cleanup is a two person job, one to climb the ladder down into the tank (wearing hi-top rain boots) carrying a broom, snow-shovel and a pail, and another person to steady the ladder and receive the muck (swept with the broom into the shovel, then transferred from the shovel to the pail) which remains after the sump-pump has gotten out all it can.

At this time, we also re-lay the airline and the airstones.  Most of the airstones can be reused, but the air-line has to be completely replaced with new.

The tank is then refilled with city water from the hose-end.  It is conditioned with whatever de-chlorinator chemicals the local big-box store is carrying.  We also add barley extract.  We put the fish directly into this fresh new water. They seem very happy to go--not at all discombobulated from the change of water.

Despite the aeration and the lack of algae due to the colorant, the pond water gets thick with particulates in the summer.  The fish are large and active, and eat a lot of fish-food. So, several times a summer, we pump out 1/2 the water and refill with fresh hose water.  The pumped out water (with all its fishy nutrients!) goes to water the plants in perennial gardens and the bog garden. When we start running fresh water in with a hose, we also add the de-chlorinator chemical--the chemical is added over maybe a couple of minutes to the stream of running water.

The water is pumped out once in June, twice in July and twice in August--that's the theory, anyhow.

A bird net is arched over the tank in fall, in an attempt to keep leaves out of the water. The net is held off the surface with PVC water-supply pipe.  This pipe, which is very flexible, is made into arches by slipping it over 18" long rebar pounded in around the pond-edge. The 1" square bird-netting is laid over these arches, the L-shaped veneer stone hanging from the tank-edge weights the edges to keep it taut.

There are no small children around here, and no legal requirement to fence a decorative fish pond. We thought that installing the pond with a good foot or so sticking out of the ground, and the water surface so far above the ground surface, would prevent anyone falling in. This worked well in general, until one day, a friend came over with her dog. The dog jumped in and paddled around very happily, but was unable to get out again. That dog is now a constant visitor, so we put up a chicken-wire fence--ugly, ugly, ugly. I have to admit that fencing is one part of the pond-keeping art that we still have to figure out.  We are cogitating on it, though, so hopefully,  there will be another post (in a year or four) saying what we did to get rid of the chicken wire.

It certainly was expensive to try out all the different filter systems.   Also, it something of a disappointment that there are no plants: the original vision was to have water plants in the pond, but the fish were voracious and ate every plant we tried, from water lilies to floating plants, to little floating plant-islands.

Yet, despite the plant-less nature of the pond, I think it does add an element of liveliness with its mysterious bubbling black surface, and the occasional flashes of gold as the fish come to the surface.  At feeding time, the fish are plainly visible at the surface, and having the pond does add a focus to garden walks. In the end, although it was very expensive to figure it all out, and although the pond isn't quite what I first imagined, I do think the answer has to be "yes," it is worth having a pond.

That time I took the peppers in over the winter

Posts dated October 14 and October 24, 2012 detailed an experiment of bringing peppers into the house for the winter.  I cut back existing Gypsy pepper plants to a small root and a bare stem, then plant these in the house.

The plants took root, and actually grew in the house all winter, under plant lights. When the time came to plant these out, the plants grew anew and made peppers a second year. Sounds like a successful project, no?

Well, no. The biggest problem: these plants were plagued all winter with ever-increasing numbers of whiteflies.  When the plants came into the house, whitefly eggs came too, probably on the small rootball of soil left at the bottom of each plant.

If I had to do this again, I would trim the plants back to a small root and a bare stem, same as before.  However, this time, I'd wash all the dirt off the roots and even soak the bare assembly in water, maybe even with a drop or two of bleach in the water, maybe as long as overnight.

Yet, even knowing what to try differently next time, it's unlikely that I'd try overwintering peppers again. For one thing,  it's not clear that the the plants would survive the proposed trimming and soaking.  But more importantly, the effort was not worth the end result.

Although in the spring of 2013, these plants made peppers before the 2013 seedling pepper plants did, the 2013 seedling plants soon outstripped the overwintered peppers in production.  From the middle of the summer of 2013 on, the overwintered plants lost vitality. They hung on, grimly, but the younger plants did far better. Plus, the overwintered plants only beat out the 2013 seedling plants by a week or so in the matter of pepper production. When you add into the equation, the amount of electricity and care to bring overwintered plants through a (long) Wisconsin winter, starting new seedlings makes more sense.

This endeth another garden experiment--TK

Friday, July 18, 2014

Channeling the dead, garden edition

Going around the garden, it is my eyes which see the volunteer bluebells, but it is my friend J's mother (a woman I never met) who chimes in that "those damned bluebells" ought to be pulled out, for what kind of gardener allows a volunteer such pride of place? Several years ago, J told me this about her mother when I was admiring my bluebells.  Ever since, for the several weeks a year between blooming and deadheading, every time I see a bluebell, J's mother and I argue whether her approach can possibly be correct.

Harold Nicholson--the male half of the Sissinghurst Castle team--said that the famous garden was "made by doing impractical things we could not afford at the wrong time of year." Harold and I get a good chuckle out of that as we walk around my garden in spring together, looking at all of last year's projects which didn't quite make it through the winter.  Such as...that time when the nice fluffy very expensive sterile-medium top-dressing was put down just before the great tree-seed deluge.  Not to mention...the time when the fishpond water got changed just as the fry were hatching out. Impractical, expensive, mistimed? You and me both, Harold, buddy.

Stopping by my co-op the other day to do a spot of shopping, I showed Henry Mitchell the bindweed growing in the hedge outlining the driveway.  "Bindweed," said he. "Gardeners have been known to move away to avoid bindweed!"  So Henry and I went in and told the nice young person behind the counter that it would be great if the bindweed were removed from the hedge before the weed went to seed.  Had Henry been there in the flesh,  he might have impressed that young person more than I did: she looked at me as if I had two heads. Which, of course I did have: mine and Henry's.

I haven't had the heart to go back and see if the bindweed has been removed (to tell the truth, Henry and I pulled most of it before we ever went in--just the ones deep under the hedge roots kept avoiding us).  Yet the way Henry keeps fussing about the bindweed, page after page--the immortal bindweed, so discouraging to gardeners!  Henry says when I go and take a look, I should put a pair of knee pads and some gardening gloves in the car, just in case.

No-dig gardening: establishing paths and beds via sheet composting combined with a sterile medium such as Pro-mix (includes update on the sedum pathway)

A previous post (September 14, 2012) described how I established a little secondary path with no digging at all, directly over existing sod, by using cardboard, newspaper and sterile planting medium (pro-mix, wood bark) dotted with pavers, edged with limestone blocks and planted with Angelina sedum.

The path as first established in 2012-note sprigs
of Angelina sedum in sterile planting medium
The path today (two years later.)* The sedum is
fully established, and has lived through two winters.
This idea worked very well.  As predicted, a few weed seeds have blown in, and a few blades of grass poked up along the edges (in the cracks between where the newspaper/cardboard was laid and the limestone blocks which made up the path).  However, also as predicted, the sterile medium made pulling the weeds out very easy.

Based on the success of the path, this year, I established a new no-dig bed using the same system: composting the grass under cardboard, topped with a sterile planting medium and edged with limestone blocks.  This time, I planted forsythia bushes with an understory of perennials, as well as sedum.

As a first step, I closely mowed the grass under where the bed was to be. Next, I loosened the soil for the forsythia bushes using my favorite digging tool: a pick-ax** Next, I laid cardboard down, then laid limestone edging, same as in the sedum path, then laid pro-mix on that and heavily watered the entire assembly.  The next day,  I easily made holes in the still-wet cardboard over where the loosened native soil was, then planted the bushes in the ground, through these holes in the cardboard, just as I would do if planting in open ground.  The native soil and promix were somewhat mixed together, but the roots are mainly in the underlying soil, with the promix (which is, at most 2-3 inches deep) is mainly around the crown. (In the below photos, the bushes are surrounded by chicken wire to keep rabbits from gnawing the new plants).

Although the bush roots are in contact with the native soil through the holes in the cardboard, the perennials are simply planted into the pro-mix.  A capful of time-release osmocote with minerals, and a teaspoon of organic fertilizer was mixed into the promix by each perennial, as promix has essentially no nutrition in it.  As the underlying cardboard rots away, the perennials' roots will work their way through (the perennials will show they've reached that point by taking off in growth--this will probably occur next spring).  In the meanwhile, daily or every-other-day watering is needed, since pro-mix dries out easily.  Oh, I should mention that the pro-mix is covered with cocoa-hulls, as was the sedum pathway.

Using sterile planting medium in conjuction with cardboard and an edging makes it easy to create no-dig paths and beds directly over existing sod. The next post in this series addresses a different variation on this theme: top-dressing an existing bed with sterile planting medium. I'll put a link here when that post goes live.


*The pink flowers on the left belong to "lipstick" alpine strawberry plants,  a ground cover on the adjoining flower bed.
** Pick ax: much easier than a shovel for loosening soil.  Using the ax, not the pick, swing overhead to chop straight down, taking a wide stance.  Make others stand back--WAY the heck away from you. Make sure, too, that the ax head is seated before each swing, and that there is nothing overhead (tree branch) to tangle the swing of the ax. Search you-tube or ask someone who knows the correct use of a pick ax if at all unsure--a minimal goal for successful gardening is to go to bed with your skull intact, and the same number of toes as you woke up with.

Thursday, July 17, 2014

Japanese beetle control in a Wisconsin garden, part II

Much delayed, here is a post on the continuing saga of Japanese beetles in my Wisconsin garden (part 1, written in 2011, is here).

In 2011, I had just planted some apple trees--very young, very tender, very expensive. The best Japanese Beetle control I found for these valuable plants was an item called Surround WP.  The WP stands for "wettable powder," and Surround is the brand name for a type of kaolin clay which has been specially treated to make it apply-able to growing plants.  Kaolin clay is simply a natural type of soil--a clay soil--which is composed of very fine particles (as are all clays) and is white in color.  The Surround is mixed with water in the instructed amounts, and then the milk-like result is applied --either by spray or by dipping--on whatever you want to protect.  In my case,  the young apple trees were being murdered by the Japanese beetles.  I've hunted through my photos, but can't seem to find the ones I took of the trees when treated, so here's a link to a photo found on the web--other than being much smaller, my trees looked identical once treated--dusty and gray, yet unquestionably alive and un-eaten.

Surround evidently clogs up the JB's pores (or something like that) in a purely mechanical (not chemical) manner.  It worked well, but has some drawbacks.
  • It has to be re-applied after a rain--any rain. 
  • As the tree grows and puts out new leaves, these have to be protected, so even with no rain, you have to spray regularly. 
  • It would only really work on quite small trees--the challenge of covering a full-gown birch or elm (JB favorites) with a powdery coating on every leaf would be impossible to meet. 
  • If you miss, the beetles will find that spot. 
  • You have to have the correct kind of sprayer.  
My first sprayer, not rated for wettable powders, clogged easily, then wore out. Even with a sprayer rated for wettable powders (as my second sprayer was) the Surround and water mix has to be kept agitated.  Commercial operations evidently get around this by using additives to keep the powder suspended but I had no access to such things, and had to keep stopping and shaking up the tank.  Also along these lines, you absolutely HAVE to clean out the entire mechanism with plain water (and spray, and spray, and spray until the water comes out clean) or the Surround will clump up and ruin the sprayer.

Bottom line: the Surround WP did protect my apple trees, even in the face of massive JB pressure, when nothing else on the face of the earth seemed to do the trick, but you have to keep it up. Without the Surround, the little apple trees would surely have died in their first season.

This summer (2014) the beetles have not been much of a problem (not yet, anyhow).  I believe this is for several reasons. The other day, I saw a flock of starlings working over some rose bushes, tearing at the petals.  I've never seen that behavior before in birds.  I finally figured out that the birds, now with enough years of exposure, have learned to eat JB's. Further, the very harsh winter we just had (polar vortexes and all that) have perhaps put a dent in the JB numbers. And, I think that once Wisconsin was no longer on the leading edge of the invasion, the numbers of beetles settled down.  The original invasion was very like a biblical plague, but the numbers now are much more manageable.  In other words, just wait, and the passage of time tends to smooth out most problems. (Although, if you have found this post because you are suddenly overwhelmed with JB's for the first time, the sad thing is that we are talking years, not weeks or months, until the situation simmers down.)

TRAP CROPS--Fine-line buckthorn bushes
The roses are staying: that's non-negotiable.  Yet, I've grubbed out pretty nearly every other major JB attractant (like guara--which was pathetically attacked) and relocated to the shade most other JB faves (such as rhubarb).

In the full-sun perennial beds live three fine-line buckthorns,* which are also a major attractant.  I didn't grub them out because I thought of trying a systemic insecticide.  Now, I don't much believe in chemical fixes, but my thinking was that my buckthorn don't flower (or at least, haven't yet) and the only way that a systemic insecticide would get loose into the ecosystem was if something was actually eating the plants.  In that case, I rationalized, the destructive creatures would get what they deserve (actually, rationality didn't much enter into it: "die, beetles, die!" was a lot closer to my exact thought).

However, daydreaming about this solution was one thing, and reality another: I never could bring myself to actually apply such a chemical in the garden here.  So, the buckthorns just got eaten to a tatter every year.

This year it finally occurred to me that the buckthorns are acting as a trap-crop.  The poor bushes get set back so far that they will never grow to full height, and they look awful: mangy and bitten.  Yet, being all-green (no flowers) even with a heavy load of JB's, they look less mangy than did a flowering attractant, such as the guara.  And the thing is, although the buckthorn are loaded with JB's, other plants growing nearby, even roses, have a much lesser load. See for yourself: these two photos, taken one minute apart, are of plants located quite near one another.

Buckthorn as a trap crop: Japanese Beetles on buckthorn
The buckthorn is acting as a trap crop, so there is little 
Japanese Beetle pressure
on roses growing nearby

Putting two and two together (for, as Gandalf said about Butterbur,  even slow thinkers will see through a brick wall in time) I've finally determined to stop fantasizing about rubbing out the JB's on the buckthorn via poisonous insecticides, while also accepting that the buckthorns must not be grubbed out, but are to remain: a trap crop sacrificed to protect other, more valuable, flowering plants.

YMMV: a different trap crop might work better in your area. The penny-drop is not that buckthorn is a good trap crop for roses (although that combo is working here in this garden) but that a plant much-infested with JB's might be seen as a good thing, if it is reducing pressure on other plants. 


* Although buckthorn is said to be invasive in certain areas, the "fine-line" variety I planted is said to be non-invasive (click linky above for description).

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

Bye-bye bonSPi, hello peppers in pots

This is part 2 of a 3-part series
Part 3 (report of how it came out) is here.

When last I posted, I was all excited about trying to bonsai some sweet pepper plants, to turn them into mini pepper-trees by restricting their roots and growing them under lights. Yesterday, I turned one out of its pot to see that the roots, previously so lovely and white were turning brown and drowned-looking.  So, today, the peppers are in bigger pots, terra cotta pots, this time, which I'm hoping will let their roots dry out between waterings, to return the roots to health. The trouble is, in these bigger pots, they are unlikely to remain "bonsai'ed," that is: they're going to get big.  So, now, it seems I am overwintering peppers in the house at a size maybe a quarter or a third the size of an outdoor plant, but not a real miniature.  So bye-bye bonSPi, and hello overwintered peppers in pots.  Here's a photo of their recent progress.

More leaves than last time, ay?

The plants actually have tiny flower buds on board. The buds might fall off and break my heart, but no sign of their doing so yet.


Sunday, October 14, 2012


This is part 1 of a 3-part series.
Part 2 is here
Part 3 (report of how it came out) is here.
* * *
Poking around the web about a week and a half ago, I stumbled across a site which tells how to make BonChi.  These are bonsai formed from fully grown chili  ("chi") pepper plants.  The full-grown plants are cut down, then re-potted and re-grown to look like classic bonsai, as miniature tree-form peppers.  The icing on the cake is that, next spring, these miniaturized peppers can be planted out after all danger of frost, and they re-grow into normal-sized pepper plants with a big head start on peppers planted as seedlings.  What a smashing idea--something to fool around with all winter, followed by early peppers next summer.

There was just one problem: I saw this at 11 PM.  At 5 AM the following morning I was due to leave town for four nights, while a big frost was expected the following night.

The rational side of my brain regretfully filed BonChi away in the list of things to try next year, and went to bed.  The gardening side of my brain had different ideas.

At 4 AM it woke me. "Get a flashlight. Go dig pepper plants.  You don't have to pot them up, just dump them in a wheelbarrow and wheel it into the shed.  Water the rootballs, then you can pot them when you get back into town. They won't freeze in the shed.  Get UP!"

"Are you kidding me?" asked the rational side of my brain. "Flashlight gardening? In October?  In Wisconsin? No. Further, even if it might possibly work with chili peppers, we don't GROW chili peppers, we grow SWEET peppers.  So fugedaboudit.  Isn't going to happen. Go back to sleep."  

Sounded logical. Over I rolled for another hour's sleep.

Yet somehow, five minutes later,  I found myself outside, shivering in my pajamas, pruning peppers.  Then, a flashlight in one hand, a shovel in the other, I whacked the poor mutilated things out of the ground and dumped them, rootballs and all, into a wheelbarrow.

Now, this sort of adventure is the sort of thing which makes my poor husband sigh and roll his eyes.  Simple solution: don't tell him, right? Yet he too, woke early. Although he isn't the world's most observant man, even he could not fail to notice when at 4:30 AM, the back door opened and in stepped his wife, dressed in a fetching ensemble of gardening boots and muddy pajamas. So yes, there was eye-rolling and sighing.

But so far, it seems to have been worth it.  When I got back into town, the pepper stumps were duly potted up into disposable plastic soup bowls--I buy my son these soups just so I can have the bowls when he's done. The soil is pro-mix, a soil-less potting medium. Have a look: the pepper stumps have been under grow lights for several days.

The pepper stumps under grow lights.  These are
are Gypsy peppers, a quick-to-mature variety. 

Although the stumps look barren, you can see new leaves forming.

New leaves sprouting.  The trunk isn't really
red: the grow lights distort color 

We'll see if this turns out to be anything--it's six months at least until the frost-free days of next spring, a long-ong-ong  time for any plant to thrive under grow lights.  Yet I don't think the whole thing is utterly hopeless for two reasons.  First, peppers can live for years, and do so in the tropics.  Second, this technique was developed in Finland, where the winters are even longer, and where, even in summer, it's too cold to put peppers outside: they must be greenhouse-grown.

In the meantime, though, what to call this experiment?  BonChi is a great name for chili peppers, but seems all wrong for sweet peppers.  How about BonSPi?
* * *
links, again:
Part 2 is here
Part 3 (report of how it came out) is here.


PS: The nights I was out of town? There was no frost after all.

Wednesday, October 3, 2012

Staying, going and coming in--an October snapshot of the veggie garden

From extreme left (yellowish leaves) to extreme right (plants hanging into frame)

Winter squash--status: going. Still dying back and drying up, prior to harvesting squash.
Broccoli--status: staying. This is the Packman variety, it has been producing all summer long, through the heat, through the drought and now, the cooler weather.  Each plant must be on its seventh or eighth cutting. An amazing super plant, I expect we'll be eating broccoli for another few weeks, at least.
Peppers--status: going. This is the Gypsy pepper variety, another amazing super plant.  We've had two almost-frosts, lower 30's, but these plants don't seem to realize they're living on borrowed time.  They aren't setting any more flowers, but the peppers on the plant continue to ripen.  I'm keeping a sharp eye on the weather forecast.  Any day now all those peppers will be headed for the root cellar.
Buckwheat--status: going. This was planted in late August as a green manure in the bed where the old leeks were harvested out.  The plan was for it to die back in the frost before setting seed, but the frost is 2 weeks late and counting.  No seed set yet, but unless we get that frost pretty darn soon, I'll have to brave the bumble bees and cut off the flower heads or else...
Sugar snap peas, foreground--status: coming in  These were planted in mid-August where the beans were taken out.  They look good--strong plants--but we'll see if they make any pods before they die: there have been no blooms yet.  The summer weather was so hot and so extended that the plants stayed small longer than they ought to have.

Note: The raised beds do help stave off a ground frost, and the stone walls hold heat, too.  However, the real reason everything is still going strong is because, unbelievably for Wisconsin in October, we really haven't had a frost yet (!!)

PS:  Close up of the super broccoli bed, you can see the dying-back squash to the left, the peppers to the right.

Tuesday, October 2, 2012

Nonesuch lunch

A handful of cherry tomatoes and a young leek.  A fall lunch fit for royalty.

Friday, September 14, 2012

Pavers amidst groundcover: putting in a secondary pathway using sheet composting

Out in the garden there's a little path, perhaps 30 or 35 inches wide, which runs between two semi-raised flower beds. Until a few days ago, this little alley-like path, about 20 or 30 feet long, was "paved" with grass.  However, being so narrow, it had become increasingly a pain to mow and trim.  The path isn't much used for walking because a much broader path parallels it, but it remains important because it is the only access to one of the beds it borders.

My goal is to reduce the mowing and trimming while maintaining the path as a secondary walkway, yet not add so much paving that the area will get hot during the day, or will feel barren. Further, I have to be able to do the whole project by myself, meaning that the inputs have to be fairly light.

It seemed to me that a paver pathway laid amidst a ground cover would suit the situation--the pavers would maintain the path, while the ground cover would soften the pavers and keep the area from becoming hot.  Further, separating the pavers with a ground cover would mean fewer pavers required to fill the area--less lifting for me!  Round pavers give more bang for the buck--providing a spot to land your foot, but weighing less and taking up less room than a square paver of (seemingly) "the same size." Plus, we've used round pavers in lots of other pathways, so they're a signature material for this garden.

After cogitating a bit, I installed a paver-and-groundcover secondary pathway as follows:

1. As stated above, the path run between two semi-raised flower beds.  Each bed is bordered with two layers of limestone landscape blocks--2-3" high, 6" wide and variable lengths.

2.  Between these borders, I laid newspapers in the pathway.  The newspapers were first wetted, then applied 8-10 sheets thick, in an overlapping pattern. If the blocks had not been there (in other words, if I were laying border blocks just to outline the path) I would have laid the newspapers first, them put the block atop the newspapers.  However, since the block was already laid, I just got as close as I could with the wet newspaper sections.

3. Next came a layer of corregated cardboard which had been kicking around out by the recycling ever since we got a patio table delivered--a huge sheet of corregated which had come through several rainstorms intact.

4. Over the cardboard, I laid pavers--for this project, I chose round concrete pavers stones 20" in diameter.  For variety, I added a few 12" steppers, as well as one 24" honker for right in the middle of the path. All these pavers were loaded into my car at the stone yard, and I drove home with the heavy load at low speeds, with the blinkers on.

5. On top of the cardboard, and around the edges of the pavers, I applied a thin scattered layer of pine bark nuggets.  The cardboard was about 1/3 to 1/2 covered with this thin layer.

6. Next came a layer of sterile potting mix. For this project, I used pro-mix (an organic growing medium which also contains some perlite, a wetter and which is pH adjusted). However, although pro-mix is handy stuff, the fact is that I bought it because it was on sale.  I would have used any sterile potting mix which happened to be on sale at the big-box store.  The combined layer of pro-mix and nuggets came just below the level of the round pavers.

7. Into the pro-mix/nugget planting medium, I placed 2-4 inch long sprigs of Angelina sedum.  There are many stands of this all around my garden--it is one of my favorite ground covers--and I harvested a strand here and a strand there until I had a big armful.  The shorter sprigs were pushed about half-way into the pro-mix/nugget medium, longer sprigs were laid on their side and covered half-way along their length with medium. Experience shows that in the climate conditions of my garden, Angelina can be expected to root readily under these circumstances. (In fact, it will root into bare soil, so I expect it to really take off in this soft springy planting medium.)

Angelina sedum in an established planting, fall color

8. To bring the final level up to the top of the pavers, I topped all with cocoa hull mulch, placing it carefully by handfuls around the sprigs.

The basis for all this rigamarole is a rather old-fashioned method known as sheet-composting. (Sheet composting is currently staging a comeback under the catchy name "lasagna gardening.")  With sheet composting you can bring soil under cultivation without actually having to dig it up.  It works particularly well on sod, as I had in my little pathway: the sod does not have to be removed or killed back before a ground cover can be planted.  The newspapers topped with cardboard stops the weeds and grass from growing, depriving them of light and air, and so choking them back to die.  The weed/grass roots and tops decompose in place, adding significant organic matter to the soil.  The sterile planting medium above the weed-barrier layer allows plants placed in it (the Angelina sedum) to get a good start with no weed competition.  Unlike a situation where the soil is tilled, there are no weed seeds brought to the surface to compete with the stuff the gardener actually wants to grow.

The newspapers and cardboard eventually decompose (I'd expect that by next fall, all the newspaper and cardboard will have disintegrated). The pro-mix, too, will decompose--all organic matter does, and the pro-mix is mainly organic.  I'd expect it to be pretty much gone by the summer after next (summer of 2014) at the latest.

As a result of all this decomposition, the level of the medium will drop.  However, by then, the sprigs will have gained traction and will grow upwards--if the Angelina sedum runs true to form, this sedum will grow above the level of the pavers, leaving the pavers as islands in a sea of sedum. The look is charming, and quite suitable to a secondary path such as this one, although the charm would turn to annoyance if the path were a main one and one had to lift one's feet high with every step to avoid crushing the sedum.

Even when the medium has rotted away completely, so that the sedum has actually come to sink its roots down into the original soil, I would still expect the sedum to grow to a level above that of the pavers. I expect this will happen for three reasons:
  • First, even when the pro-mix and cardboard and newspaper breaks down, the bark nuggets will remain for years.  Bark has a substance in it (lignum) which breaks down much more slowly than ordinary wood
  • Second, the sedum (like any thickly planted perennial) adds organic matter to the top soil level, such that the soil level rises over time. In other words, although the pro-mix, newspapers and cardboard all shrink and decompose, I'd expect the soil level itself to swell and grow due to the additions of organic material at its surface from the sedum shedding leaves, growing new roots, thickening up, etc.  
  • Finally, even if the sedum were not part of the equation, pavers will sink steadily into the ground--in my experience, even quite a thick paver simply laid on sod or even bare soil will eventually sink so far into the ground that it becomes level with with the ground's surface, if not actually half-buried.  I'm not sure what the mechanism is here, but I think this is why archeologists dig into the ground to find evidence of the past--the ground simply rises up over time. 

Naturally, weeds will find their way into this system at some point--some hardy runners may survive under the sheet composting, particularly along the edges where the newspaper leaves a gap.  Further, new weed seeds are blown in all the time, ready and willing to take root in the nice, soft medium at the surface.  However, that same nice soft surface ought to make the weeds  pretty easy to root out, especially if I keep after it and don't let them get big until such time as the Angelina can thicken up to do the job all on its own--probably by the middle of summer 2013.  Also, Angelina is a very distinctive- looking plant, and weeds are easy to see in it (which is one reason I chose it as the groundcover for this pathway project).

Here is a photo of the path to this point: you can see the sprigs of Angelina sedum in the planting medium.

Round pavers with Angelina sprigs in planting
medium, bordered by limestone blocks
2014 addendum: A new post shows this path after two years, and expands this idea, showing a perennial flower-bed established in this same no-dig sheet composing manner.

Wednesday, September 5, 2012

The miser's hoard: tulips

The days have been noticeably shorter, but not until last night, when the first branch-rattling rain swept in, has fall been in the air.  Which of course, you know, leads to thought of next spring's tulips.  The first fresh shipments from the Netherlands have already arrived in the big box stores--I noticed them but only began coveting them last night as the wind knocked around.

The first issue is how to keep the bulbs from immediate destruction--nothing so infuriating as a fat squirrel on a branch overhead noisily eating next year's hope of spring.

If the bulbs survive to bloom, the second question is what happens next. Although tulips are an unquestionable necessity after the short days of winter, these beauties are soon followed by gasping dying brown foliage--dismayingly contrary to the tulip-spring-renewal meme.

The solution, it seems to me, is to again plant tulips in pots.  And, that is actually today's project, the rain having made the ground too wet for other projects. So, I'm off to the big box store with a glad heart: no miser handling a hoard of gold could be as greedily satisfied as I will be when I return with bags and bags (and bags) of tulips.  Mwahaha!

Friday, August 31, 2012

More or not enough: rain and gardening

Looking at this past growing season from the beginning (late May) and near the end (late August) leads me to ruminate upon water.

5/26/12 The garden has never looked better than it does this spring.  Partly this is because the plants in the new gardens are now big enough to look right, but mostly this is because there was SO much rain earlier in the spring.  I've always known that water is essential to plants, yada, yada but WHAT a demonstration.  Mature perennials which reliably grow to a certain size are much larger, although the only change has been more water.  Sufficient rain (which we get most years) turns out not to be the same thing as optimal rain (which we got this year).

(Interlude, featuring the worst drought in 50 years)

8/31/12 Here at the tail end of a drought (and its STILL droughty out in the garden) the power of water has been shown once again.  Without getting into the philosophical questions raised by running 750+ feet of hose (all summer long, sometimes 24/7) the LACK of rain demonstrated convincingly that no other input (including hose water) can substitute for water from the sky: Hose water kept the garden limping along without any major die-back, but limping along and doing well are quite different states.

If the conditions we experienced this summer are to become the "new normal," I believe that home gardening will have to adapt in at least a couple of ways.

1) An increase in container gardening.
Container gardening takes less hose-water to keep going that in-ground gardening (although it takes more human input to run those hoses--so I suppose some sort of automation of the watering function will also have to take place).  Since the technically-oriented method of planting containers and running automated watering systems are not the traditional mode of midwestern gardening, I would expect fewer people to self-identify as gardeners going forward (and I'd expect more people to give it up and stay inside in the air-conditioning, as is only sensible, if you think about it).

2) An increase in non-native plantings, especially of "backbone plants" like trees and shrubs.
Natives around here expect a certain amount of water and won't thrive with reduced water availability.  For example: although I would expect to have to keep new trees/shrubs going with hose water for a growing season or even two seasons, having to keep giant oaks and maples going with the hose was a daunting proposition this summer.*  A maple big enough to shade a house drinks a LOT of water.  Perhaps a more drought-tolerant tree from a drier climate would be a better choice for the next tree-planting spree around here.  In this regard, the recent trend toward requiring "all-native" or "mostly native" plantings (a west-coast phenomena) seems to me to be going exactly backwards in allowing gardeners to adapt their landscapes to the changing climate (yet another reason, I fear, that sitting in the air conditioning seems increasingly likely to supplant gardening).

* Most people around here did not water their trees, and their trees look OK.  However, in the next few years I'm afraid I'll see trees which were stressed in this summer's drought succumb to the stress of disease, insects or further drought.  Reading that hundreds of millions of trees are considered lost in Texas due to drought had much influence on my decision to water even giant and well-established trees.

Monday, April 30, 2012

Lettuces, tulips and party dresses

The first long cool Wisconsin spring since I started gardening has been a sort of a trip down memory lane, to the long cool springs of my childhood in Europe and on the US east coast. The lettuces and tulips of a cool gray German or Dutch spring, shining with drizzle, these are the plants which came to my mind's eye in this weather. Astonishing to see them growing just that same way, here in the continental interior of the US, which is such a remarkably different climate, usually.

Spring here in Wisconsin is a three-day affair, with summer heat coming on while the last snow melts from where it was piled high in the corner of the parking lot out at the Target store.  Sometimes, the last tulips catch the first roses.  And, this year SEEMED as if it would follow that same pattern, only more so--in March, we got some 80 degree days.  However, the freak heat retreated, followed by the inevitable frost (which just blasted the tips of the Catalpa trees) and thereafter, the weather stabilized into wet and cool, a pattern which has held for nearly 6 weeks or so.

I bought some ranunculuses at a big box store (they looked so sad in their tiny pots) and thought them a great extravagance, because they will die back in the heat, but they have repaid all.  They are blooming beautifully in some pots near my office window, looking fiery and bold against the muted gray sky, almost like early poppies with their papery petals.  Every last bud opened, which I did not expect.

I was up in Minnesota over the last weekend, and on the way back to Madison, the mixed forests of Wisconsin's northwestern tier were shining in every color in which a leaf can shine.  It looked more like autumn than spring, except that the trunks shone out clearly because the leaves are too small to hide them, a particularly striking effect for the white white trunks of the paper birches.  A leaf-haze one might say, rather than true leaves, and these tiny leaves were red, purple, all kinds of greens, with here and there a softwood in dull green needle, and the white flowers of the little ironwoods everywhere along the hedgerows. It was a remarkable display, and as soon as the sun finally comes out for the season, it will all fade to a sameness of green, the more usual clothes of a tree which has to take off its party dress and settle down to making a sober living. The party dresses will be back after work, this fall, but it was remarkable to see every tree all dressed up together in the AM of the year, which pretty much has never happened since I moved to Wisconsin in the early 1980's.

Saturday, August 27, 2011

Humbug in paradise

The end of summer is in sight. The days are getting much shorter. The veggies are all dried up and bug eaten.  The annuals are blooming their darn fool heads off.  The perennials are sulking--dried flower pods everywhere.  Gardening has been intense this summer.

With the weather so fine, and the mosquitos so nonexistent, and every day more perfect than the one before, I should be grateful beyond measure. And, I am, I am!

Yet, dare I say it?  I'm ready for summer to be over.  Specifically, I'm ready to see the last 2 foot long zuke, ready to put away the hose and trimmer and turn my mind to something else.  It's heresy, especially after all the winter moaning and whining I did while waiting for spring, but, basta!  Enough!

Let the frost come.  Let the leaves commence to fall.  Let mold eat up the zucchinis.  Let the honey bees nesting in the compost huddle tight in the cold and stop flying about so alarmingly.  Let the tools and gloves stay in their nooks in the shed. Even paradise needs a little change-up.

Monday, August 1, 2011

Japanese beetle control in a Wisconsin home garden, part 1

(Part II is here)
Six summers years ago, Japanese beetles first made their appearance in my Madison WI garden.  Not knowing any better, I went and bought traps.  Literally tens of thousands of beetles were caught. The traps filled up so fast that by midday, some traps were so overflowing that there was no room for the beetles still being attracted to drop through the bottleneck of the bag and be caught, so that in the top of each bag, they swarmed over each other in seething masses trying to get to the trap-attractant.

A garden helper, A.H., was working on the flight path to one of the more popular traps, and he had to move his work station because unholy numbers of beetles kept flying straight into him, ten or a dozen strikes a minute by midday.   Other than colony-dwelling insects, such as ants or bees, I had never seen so many insects in one place at one time to that date. Their buzzing around the traps sounded like a bee-hive--a strong bee-hive of several supers.

Fortunately, I conceived of the idea of flaming the dead bugs before burying them. I have since read that their bodies contain eggs ready-to-go, so that burying dead beetles from traps simply places the eggs where they want to be--underground--despite the death of the beetle carrying the eggs.

The next year was a little better. I had read more about traps in the meanwhile, enough to know that the traps should be placed as far away from the garden as possible rather than in the garden itself, since only about 70-80% of all beetles attracted wind up in the traps.

This improved siting helped somewhat, yet, "better" is a relative term, and there were still no rose buds or hollyhocks that year from early July through mid-August, not a one.  Instead, there were swarms of beetles, sometimes in a mass as big as a grape, sometimes in a mass as big as a golf ball, around each unfortunate bud. It was enough to make me want to quit gardening.

BLENDERIZING THE BEETLES--short term vs. long term effects
One step taken was to buy a cheap blender and knock masses of beetles into it in the cool of the morning.  Once blended (ICK and DOUBLE ICK--it was a long time before I could bring myself to kill living things in a blender--even rose-eating Japanese beetles) I poured the beetle-juice all around. Also, the bags of dead beetles from the traps were lain under the most susceptible plants (mainly guaras). I believe the dead-beetle smell (they stank to high heaven) had a short-term effect because it helped somewhat to repel their friends from landing on those plants.  (By "somewhat" I mean that the day's guara blooms lasted until maybe 1 PM before the last was eaten up, rather than being gone by 11 AM.)

In retrospect, I believe the blenderizing had more of a long-term effect than a short-term one.  The short-term effect was to repel living beetles by the smell of their dead companions, and the effect was mild, at best. However,  the long-term effect was to speed up establishment in the soil of any diseases the beetles might be carrying.  For example, Milky Spore disease is a soil-borne disease which affects JB grubs, establishing chronic conditions which help keep JB numbers in check.  Milky Spore eventually becomes established in the soil as JB's move into an area. I believe (or hope, anyway!) that the blenderizing process, which spread JB bits into the soil faster than nature would have, sped up the establishment of any diseases the JB's might have been carrying, such as Milky Spore.

The next year, I grubbed up the most susceptible plants and either got rid of them or transplanted them into the shade.  Thus, the guaras were all pulled out and the rhubarb (a great beetle favorite) was moved into the shade of a tree.  (High shade, but shade nonetheless).  It has been my observation that beetles strongly prefer plants in full sun, passing over those planted in shade.

Several more years went by in this manner, with incremental improvements: fewer susceptible plants, better siting of plants and better siting of traps. In fact, eventually, I got rid of the traps altogether. The biggest improvement, however, came from there simply being fewer beetles. You see, I believe we were on the leading edge of an invasion into new territory. With no natural predators and no diseases, the numbers exploded. After having been established a few years, the diseases and predators caught up to the bugs, and nature has commenced to rebalance their numbers. (I have since attended a lecture by Phil Pelliterri--the entomologist who runs the Insect Diagnostic lab at UW-Madison--who agreed that this theory may be likely.)  However, although the plauge-like numbers went down, JB's are still present in sufficient numbers to threaten new plantings, especially of young trees.

All of which brings us to this 2014 post (Japanese Beetle control, part II) which discusses what additional steps have been taken, what nifty new tricks have been learned, and what has happened since these words were written in 2011.

Monday, July 11, 2011

Uncontrolled experiments--the fish pond

The fish pond was quite cloudy, and getting smelly.  To solve the problem, here's what happened:
  • Half the water got pumped out. (It was used it to water the nearby plants) 
  • That water was replaced with new water treated with a chemical said to turn tap water fish-friendly
  • Two little "bale-ettes" of barley straw (said to clear pond water) were sunk below the pond surface.
  • A heaping teaspoon of beneficial bacteria (bought at a pond store) was thrown into the filter
  • The pond was "shocked" by pouring in ten different places, ten (total) capfuls of a liquid from a bottle claiming to be pond clarifier (motto: "fish love it")
  • The pump was reconfigured to allow more water to run through the UV (algae-killing) light on one portion of the pump
  • Water plants were added, the thinking being that these would remove nutrients from the water for their own growth purposes. Added were: 2 plants of golden moneywort (Lysimachia nummularia "Aurea") and three plants of water buttercup (I think this one is Ranunculus flabellaris).  (Truthfully, these were both chosen on the grounds of being the cheapest water plants in the water-plant house at Flower Factory, rather than because I knew anything about their special fitness for my purposes.)

Result? Clear water, sure enough, although somewhat green-or golden-colored from--I'm guessing--the barley straw, as all the other additives were clear.

The problem? Which of these step(s) caused the improvement?

Must all of these steps be repeated when the pond becomes cloudy again? This would be unfortunate, given that cloudiness occurs pretty much every time it rains--seems the spore for algae are washed out of the air to multiply like mad in the pond.  So, I'm left to guess and intuit which of these treatments had the most power.

The combined treatments were effective, yes.  Yet this is not a very scientific method of proceeding, is it?